In my research on civil unrest and resistance prior to colonial rule, I found that many people still consider the French to have had a large part in creating the social movements in Senegal as we see them today. Early-on resistance often came in the form of Islamic Jihad. While this tradition was part of the shaping of resistance movements before the 1900s, the French connected kingdoms and cultivated the power of more secular groups as they gained power in Senegal. A figurehead of resistance was Amadu Bamba. He was the son of a Jihadist, but was also a strong critic of his father. Bamba never practiced Jihad but because he was a Marabout, and gathered people that opposed further development, the French colonial powers placed him in this group and so exiled him. With this time, exiled in Gabon, Bamba built a reputation for himself through nonviolent action. He achieved something near sainthood, and has remained a symbol in resistance struggles today.
So now that I’m coming to understand more of the patterns of resistance in Senegal, Jihad, Bamba, Labor strikes (before and during colonization), and recent urban rioting, I need to focus on how they connect, and how they work in the development of democracy.