Reasearch Journal

General overview of my paper

China’s Economic Engagements with Africa: Analysis of China’s Aid, Trade, and Investments with the African continent
Introduction

In 2008, Sino-African economic relationships have grown to $106 billion from $10 billion in 2000 (Brautigam & Xiaoyang, 2011). This remarkable increase in China-Africa economic partnerships has, as a consequence, engendered many controversies and debates within both African states and the international community.
Many scholars believe that China’s increasing economic investments or Foreign Direct Investment (FDI) in Africa is only driven by its intention to exploit and extract at will the rich natural resources of the African continent without thinking of the adverse consequences these partnerships may have on African people (Sanfilippo, 2010). Conversely, other scholars think that Beijing’s economic incursion in Africa does, in fact, have positive impacts on most African countries (Brautigam & Xiaoyang, 2011). These different approaches shed light on the broader consideration of Sino-African relationships. In both sides, resource use seems to be the primary subject of discussion…
This paper analyzes the economic architecture of China’s engagements in West Africa. It situates Sino-African relations in the context of an underdeveloped and poor Africa exposed to budgetary restrictions, unemployment, bad governance and authoritarian regimes. It provides insight into China-Africa economic relation and highlights how Sino-African trade relationships and China’s aid and investments help to improve growth and development in the African continent…

China-Africa economic Relationships

Brief history of China-Africa economic relations
China and Africa have been economically exchanging for a long time. This long history of trade relations can be dated back to the early reign of Ming Dynasty (1368-1644) with the Chinese admiral Zheng He who visited the east coast of Africa three times (Mai & Wilhelm, 2012). Over time, these coastal exchanges have been developed, and since the second half of the twentieth century, economic cooperation between China and Africa have constantly grown in response to Beijing 1950s’ globalization and policy reform (Draper & Pere, 2005). In the 1950s, Brautigam (2003) notes that, in supporting African countries in their fight for independence, China had to not only provide military assistance but also, to think carefully about the significant support it might receive from new independent African states in its intention to regain the united Nations seat that Taiwan had taken. Furthermore, China’s presence in the African continent could help to maintain the communist and social ideology that some African leaders were preaching to gather and sensitize masses about independence and nationalism (Kidane, 2012). It is also important to note that, even if it might seem very surprising, China’s engagement in Africa is not conducted by an unscrupulous purpose to empty African resources in the globalization context, but it is a result of a long process of cooperation based on mutual respect and communist consideration toward an oppressed and colonized Africa (Kachiga, 2013)…

China’s African Policy
Contrary to the Western countries which consider Africa as an unsuitable environment for economic investment due to the exacerbation of social disparities and corruption, China develops a very different approach based on awareness of African resources’ potential, mutual interest and respect for African sovereignty (Brautigam, 2009…

China’s new economic strategies with Africa

China’s noninterference policy in the African continent
Like Africa, China has also experienced colonialism, underdevelopment, and wars. These major events have somehow reinforced China’s moral in its intention to build a strong, powerful and influential state (Feng, Jiang & Yu, 2015). As this process requires time, motivation and economic resources, China started to develop different internal and external economic strategies to reach its development goals (Kachiga, 2013). From the 1978’s economic reforms to its recent going global strategy, China has set the key foundations of its economic development and worldwide economic influence (Brautigam, 2009)…

Birth of a win-win partnership between China and Africa

The nature of Sino-African relationships is much diversified and involves different domains. African states are likely to provide to China access to raw materials and natural resources in order to cover its rapid economic and industrial growth. In exchange, China’s assistance is mostly oriented in building infrastructure and giving loans to African governments (Hicks, 2015). Brautigam (2009) sheds light on the nature of these economic relations and studies in depth what would be considered as a win-win partnership…..

China’s African aid

Brief history of China’s African aid
China’s foreign aid toward African countries can be traced back to the 1950s. It first coincided with the period between the birth of the People’s Republic of China (PRC) and the 1978’s China’s economic reform (Brautigam, 2003). Prior to 1978 China’s economic reform, Beijing’s main concern has been to accompany financially and ideologically African countries that were more likely against colonialism and imperialism. From that period, two-thirds of China’s aid have been directed to Africa where 47 countries have separately received around $100 million with low-interest or interest-free loans (Brautigam, 2003)….
New wave of China’s African aid
Different from the West one, China’s aid and economic engagements with the ancient continent are with no political attachments and, they have even a tendency to accommodate with any African government (Brautigam & Xiaoyang, 2011)….

China-Africa: A partnership for developing African infrastructure

Diagnosis of Africa’s infrastructural services
Africa has the weakest infrastructure network in the world, and despite this fact, African governments have a tendency to pay up to twice more the regular cost to have access in infrastructural services. Adding to that, the quality, deficiency, and inadequacy of Africa’s infrastructural services are largely contributing to its lack of performance in terms of economic progress (Foster, Butterfield, Chen, & Pushak, 2009)….
China’s public aid for development of infrastructure in Africa
Despite the last international economic crisis of 2008, which affected investments worldwide, China’s aid toward Africa has remained stable and constant. At about $ 5 billion per year, this aims at improving infrastructure all around the African continent. In that perspective, China starts building high-voltage transmission lines in order to ensure an electrical interconnection of Sub-Saharan African countries. These initiatives are very important, and they help to promote integration of African states (African Development Bank, 2011)….

Conclusion
China’s economic engagements with the African continent cannot be considered as a new form of neo-colonialism or simply a cooperation based on resource exploitation. Reducing Sino-African economic partnerships to a new form of resource use is somehow minimizing the important effects these relations might have in promoting a more socio-economic development. It has been shown that China has even a tendency to share its own development model and experience with Africa. Beijing is proposing innovative development approaches, such as the SEZs, the non-conditional aid, and infrastructural investments…….

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